Tag Archives: Ransom Roberson

OpenNews 3D Prints


After several weeks of waiting, we finally got 3D prints in for our enclosures! We had hoped to have these ready for ICAT day; however, the prints ended up taking much longer than estimated by the library’s Design Studio. The Raspberry Pi enclosure ended up needing to be printed twice after the first 3D printer malfunctioned and printed an unusable hunk of plastic. As you can see in the photos below, the prints were still imperfect, but fit together well and would have been ideal for a quick prototype demonstration.

We modeled an enclosure for our buttons to fit in with space for LEDs and wires. We also downloaded a 3D model for our raspberry pi enclosure from thingiverse.


Ultimately, we were able to make-do with our quick cardboard version of the enclosure, which was more than sufficient for our purposes, especially considering the technical issues we encountered during our presentation that made the buttons less than functional.

In the future, it might be a better idea to allow for several weeks for printing time to account for potential 3D printer delays and malfunctions.

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Group 5 – Parts & Timeline


Final Parts List:


  • Interactive classification demo
    • Display monitor
    • Enclosure (3D print)
    • Raspberry Pi with 2 buttons
  • Website mockups
    • Create a slideshow for our demo
    • Flesh out more areas of the website
      • Home page
      • Article view
      • Article editor
      • Report page
      • Moderation/administration page
    • Write mock articles
    • Elaborate on opposing viewpoints feature
  • Depiction of the future world
    • Exaggerate existing articles
    • Design fictional future news sources
    • Create a slideshow for demo as well
  • Video trailer
    • 1m 30s (?) – need to confirm details


  • On April 14th
    • Aisling: Order parts
  • By April 19th
    • Victoria: Write future OpenNews articles for demo
      • (can grab & change articles)
      • 2 articles
      • 5 headlines
    • Ransom: Work website mockups
    • Matt: Create python interface for NLP demo
  • On April 19th
    • Get NLP demo working on Raspberry Pi
    • Design skeleton of slideshows
    • Ransom’s birthday
  • By April 21st
    • Victoria: Obtain/write current and projected future articles for presentation
    • Matt: Create images for articles
  • On April 21st
    • Plan out video trailer to film over weekend
  • By April 26th
    • Complete video trailer
    • Finalize mockups
  • On April 26th
    • Plan out final build
  • By April 28th
    • 90% done
    • Button demo working
    • 3D print enclosure for demo
  • By April 30th
    • Aiming for 100% done by this date
    • Set up slideshows
    • Test with monitors
  • By May 2nd
    • Final presentation ready to go
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Group 5 – OpenNews: Critical Response


In this update, we will discuss and address some of the concerns that were brought to our attention by various critics of our system. We have chosen to omit generally positive comments and focus on areas that need improvement and better definition.

Notable Responses

Reviewer: Kari

Process and Methods: 5 / 5. “Lots of supporting documentation/research. I wish they approached them them with a more [unknown word] eye”.
Response: That is true, during our research we may have been looking for evidence that supports trends rather than evidence that does not.

Quality of Proposed System: 3 / 5. “I’m concerned about the desire to eliminate bias from news, as we discussed during the feedback session. The aims are [unknown], just I’m not sure that the prototype will accomplish them”. Response: I think the reviewer is pointing out that we may have issues eliminating bias in our prototype or that our prototype will not be robust enough to demonstrate. I believe this is something we will address more closely in the coming weeks as we begin to flush out our presentation ideas. Ultimately, we realize that our idea is too ambitious to fully implement; however, we believe we can implement aspects (including a rudimentary classification system) that will create a compelling argument for the existence of our entire system. 

Reviewer: Ellis

Process and Methods: 4 / 5. “I was curious about related work. I saw a lot of what was wrong but not of anything with similar solution”.
Response: This comment indicates the importance of understanding our system and where it gets its roots. That is to say, we should have done and should do more research and examination of similar existing system such as Wikinews and Politifact in order to clearly demonstrate how we will address the weak points and problems with these. Generally, we believe our system gets it strength and distinction from having an intuitive and clean user experience, a robust natural language processing backend, and a strong crowd driven experience with defined checks and balances.

Reviewer: Wisnioski

Presentation and Communication: 3 / 5. “Strong desire to tackle key issue. Is objectivity possible in a media environment?”
Response: We need to research and analyze whether objectivity really
is possible in a media environment and present that in a clear manner. We believe this really comes down to better defining how we are quantifying the quality of news and preventing the introduction of slow-moving, hard-to-see algorithmic biases. We will begin to address this more closely in the coming weeks as we begin to think about our prototype more.

Process and Methods: 3.5 / 5. “Lots of exciting literature on this. What systems currently exist? (re: politifact). Response: This question was addressed two comments up. The fact that it came up again indicates that we should prioritize this discussion.

Quality of Proposed System: 3.5 / 5. “Important domain space, I suggest focusing on an element of “news” that especially fits your model”.
Response: We should identify and then focus on different elements of news. We likely do not know enough
about news itself.

Reviewer: Zach Duer

Process and Methods: 4 / 5. Also commented next to the bullet point of “is there an appropriate review of related work and existing projects?” with “not enough” then commented “I’m deeply concerned about the idea that NLP can be trained on unbiased vs biased articles, and that it wouldn’t understand bias-by-omissions for example, and would reflect the bias of the people labeling articles as biased/unbiased for training”.
Response: We need to more clearly present our solution for avoiding bias in labeling, which is crowdsourcing to people from all demographics and having each article reach a certain percent agreement on whether or not it is biased. Bias by omission is a strong concern but we are hoping that the open source aspect of OpenNews will encourage those to add details that were omitted and refine algorithms.

Quality of Proposed System: 5 / 5. “Yes, great idea… is an AI for automatic first-layer WikiNews editing, makes total sense”.
Response: Let’s ensure we continue to focus on our AI and continue defining it. This is after all what makes our system unique.

Key Notes and Details

  • We need to explore and elaborate on our NLP ideas more – how do we quantify the quality of news exactly? We don’t want to focus on eliminating bias but rather making it clear when bias exists.
    • How do we keep our NLP from getting trained improperly such that biases are introduced through less obvious avenues (bias by omission)
    • How bad is bias? Is purely factual/unbiased news worth anything? We should mock up examples of what we consider to be ideal articles and unideal articles
  • There were two comments regarding pre-existing systems, noting that we should explore and understand exactly what these systems did wrong and how we’re improving on them with ours. Notably, WikiNews and Poltifact
  • We need to better define what “news” is to OpenNews

Progress Update

We’ve started mocking up some designs for OpenNews, these were shown to critics as part of the review process this post is covering. These mockups are to help us understand what news looks like and what information is important to a reader.


Article View Mockup


Homepage View Mockup

This class we’ve also determined the materials needed for our final project. So far, this includes:

We also expect to bring some monitors and computers to display our presentation, website, and possibly our movie trailer or some slideshow.

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Group 5 – Research


Secondary Research

Demographics and News Consumption

The mediums by which individuals view news vary strongly by age, gender, education and income.  


This may not seem like a problem, but the audiences of each news source varied greatly in their knowledge when asked about current events. In addition, many of these news sources are biased. Since different demographics watch different news sources, this means different demographics are exposed to different biases and amounts of direct knowledge of current events.




Algorithms and News

Many sites, such as GreatSchools and Google use algorithms to rank pages online. One issue with ranking algorithms is that they often use metrics that only subjectively indicate quality. For instance, some communities may wish to use different factors for ranking schools and often the “most viewed” page is not necessarily the highest quality. Nick Diakopoulos urges for transparency in algorithms so that consumers can choose whether or not they agree with the metrics used by the computer.



Scholarly References

Biased news distorts facts and omits information yet it increases public engagement with the political process. However, it increases polarization and a deeper and deeper divide occurs between factions. This is bleeding into party politics and was especially obvious with Obama’s healthcare initiative.

Kelly, D. (2013). Red news, blue news: Political consequences of news bias

The news has the power to portray people of certain races, incomes or genders in certain lights. A portion of this power is in their coverage of homicides. The news coverage of homicides does, indeed, often vary by gender, race and income.

Lundman, R. J.. (2003). The Newsworthiness and Selection Bias in News about Murder: Comparative and Relative Effects of Novelty and Race and Gender Typifications on Newspaper Coverage of Homicide.Sociological Forum, 18(3), 357–386. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.lib.vt.edu/stable/3648888


The majority of participants in a web-based study share news on social media to stay connected with family and friends. They also rely on this network to guide them to news articles, since they are often similar. The backs up past research cited by the paper that news consumption is becoming a social act. Individuals under 35 are now heavily relying on their social networks for alerts to news stories.


Howe, J. (2011). Social media and news consumption (Order No. 1505751). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (920121262). Retrieved from http://login.ezproxy.lib.vt.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.lib.vt.edu/docview/920121262?accountid=14826


Current Solutions to Journalistic Issues

In order to allow for better whistle-blowing and honest reporting, the Tor Project was created. Its goal is to develop an open security toolkit to allow journalists to avoid digital surveillance by governments and other groups.



Currently it is difficult to view the comments and annotations of others. The DocumentCloud project allows individuals to crowdsource news by adding their own notes and comments to existing news material.



During big events, like the Brussels Bombing, aggregating eyewitness accounts is a complex and relatively opaque process. In order to solve this, a web-based tool, iWitness, is being created to aggregate user generated content during big events. It will then display this information for all to see.



Wikinews currently advertises itself as, “The free news source you can write!” It instructs users that they can only post things cited from reputable sources or first hand eyewitness accounts. On the news article all of the sources are listed and users have a link to edit the page. The articles are not well categorized, however, and doesn’t appear to have lots of recent content or breadth of content like traditional sources such as CNN or Fox.



Propublica states that it is an “independent, non-profit newsroom that produces investigative journalism in the public interest”. Upon browsing the site one can see that it is full of investigative journalism. However, news on breaking current events is not shown.





  • Understand the demographics of our sample
  • Usage of different mediums of news
  • Identify level of bias and filtering
  • Establish the monetary value of news
  • Find survey takers’ satisfaction with news


  1. Which sources of news do you use regularly? (check all that apply)
    1. Newspaper, magazines, or other physical periodicals
    2. Radio (e.g. NPR, talk shows)
    3. Television (e.g. local news, national cable news)
    4. News websites (e.g. Yahoo! News, CNN.com)
    5. News aggregator websites (e.g. Reddit, Google News)
    6. Social media (e.g. Facebook, Twitter)
  2. Which is your primary source of news? [Only if the responder replied to 1]
    1. Newspaper, magazines, or other physical periodicals
    2. Radio (e.g. NPR, talk shows)
    3. Television (e.g. local news, national cable news)
    4. News websites (e.g. Yahoo! News, CNN.com)
    5. News aggregator websites (e.g. Reddit, Google News)
    6. Social media (e.g. Facebook, Twitter)
  3. Satisfaction with news (Rate with stars 1-5)
    1. Quality of reporting
    2. Advertisements
    3. Entertainment
  4. How much time per day, on average, do you spend on social media?
    1. 0-1 hours
    2. 1-2 hours
    3. 3-4 hours
    4. 5+ hours
  5. What is your age?
    1. Under 18 years old
    2. 18-24 years old
    3. 25-34 years old
    4. 35-44 years old
    5. 45-54 years old
    6. 55-64 years old
    7. 65-74 years old
    8. Prefer not to answer
  6. How much would you be willing to pay to get quality news?
    1. A great deal
    2. A lot
    3. A moderate amount
    4. A little
    5. None at all
  7. How much do you currently pay to get news? Please choose the second option to verify you are paying attention.
    1. A great deal
    2. A lot
    3. A moderate amount
    4. A little
    5. None at all


We have designed this questionnaire with Qualtrics and intend to survey a random sampling of Amazon Mechanical Turk users.

We are submitting this survey by the end of this week. Our next update will include the results and analysis of our findings.

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Open News – Group 5


  1. Goal: Our goal is to convince the class that in 5 to 10 years, most news will be obtained from social media and strongly biased news websites, influenced heavily if not solely, by profit. Websites like reddit and Facebook which attempt to democratize news today only end up furthering the issue. The quality and credibility of news will be out of check. We are suggesting a better unbiased, crowd-sourced, news distribution system.
  2. Idea: Open-source, credible, high-quality news source.
  3. Problem:
    • Lower quality of current events news
      • Many educated people get news filtered by friends on Facebook or from anonymous sources on reddit.
        • You can buy ads & likes on social media
        • You can buy “upvotes” on reddit
      • Less educated people get news from highly-opinionated Local TV news, and biased national TV shows
      • Credibility of source doesn’t matter
      • Little-to-no fact checking
    • Incentives are page views, not engagement
      • Money comes from ads and sponsors
      • Leads to clickbait
      • Opinionated articles are shared more often on social media
        • Individuals want to share articles that align with their opinion
    • Only paid subscriptions (e.g. NYT, WSJ) do not have to cater to ads
      • This bars low-income individuals from unbiased news
      • Even for those who can afford it, why pay for news when you can get it free?
    • You do not see opposing viewpoints
      • Can tune to Fox for conservative, MSNBC for liberal
      • Only subscribe to certain “subreddits”
      • Pick Facebook friends and click articles of similar viewpoints
  4. Audience
    • Initially rational, educated people with access to the Internet will want to use our product. Our hope is that we can then appeal to poorer, less-educated users through the free access and clear, easy-to-read news.
    • Those with special interests to control the news will not like this.
      • Corporations
      • Politicians
      • Interest groups
    • Those who don’t care about accurate news or are just seeking for entertainment or drama in their news may not care about this.
  5. Approach: Our general idea is to have an open-sourced, user submitted, expert checked, unbiased news-paper. Some of our feature ideas are:
    • Highlights at the top of articles and easy-to-read.
    • Have a cross-sectional view of different expert viewpoints, similar to IGM Chicago.
    • Credibility ratings. If a statement is contentious or unproven, it can be highlighted or denoted.
    • Subcategories
      • “Here is the story on Trump desiring to build a wall”
      • “Here is what our professional economists think. Here is a breakdown on their conservative/liberal bias over time.”
      • “Here is what experts in international relations think. Here is a breakdown of their conservative/liberal bias over time”
    • Categories / Tags
    • Social shareability
  6. Challenges & Unknowns:
    • How do you convince people to use it when there are more entertaining and satisfying sources available?
      • This is supposed to be a rebellion, it’s not going to be an initially favorable idea
    • Most news sources garner revenue from sponsorships, page views, or subscriptions. Without either, how do we financially support this news source
      • How do we handle the bandwidth of incoming articles?
      • Perhaps we follow the StackOverflow model, requiring a number of credibility points before an article can be posted.
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VT Support Probe Kit


By: Ransom, Victoria, Marcus, Sean

Selected Community

We selected the custodial service at Virginia Tech because we see them around campus and the product of their work but never extensively interact with them.


Overall Presentation of Kit

The kit is a box wrapped in a friendly color and labeled as Probe Kit. Upon opening the kit, the user immediately sees an instruction sheet. The instruction sheet tells them that each day they will be opening an enclosed envelope labeled by the day of the week and each envelope will contain instructions. When they remove the instruction sheet they will see a stack of small labeled envelopes and a digital camera resting on tissue paper. Each envelope will contain a photo prompt which they will respond to with as few or as many photos as they would like, as well as a daily short answer prompt. The first envelope also prompts them to take a questionnaire which asks about their personal and job life. On the last day the envelope will prompt them write a letter to their past or future self.  The exact prompts and questionnaire are in the appendix.


We decided that a week long trial with the probe kit would be ideal, as we want to capture both the week and weekend of the VT Cleaning Staff. We also realized that we would need a day to process kits between user trials. Therefore the first week of trials will go Monday to Monday, the next week of trials will go Tuesday to Tuesday, etc. In order to reduce work for the VT Cleaning Staff, we decided to use a common cleaning supplies storage area as our distribution point. We will incentivise individuals to use the probe kit by providing a monetary reward for those who pick it up and return it in a week.

Reasoning for Kit

  1. Digital Camera
    1. Cleaning staff should carry camera on them at work to document things. A disposable camera is larger than a digital camera.
    2. Collecting SD Cards is more efficient than developing film and scanning it
    3. We picked a robust and cheap digital camera. It can be dropped in water and still be safe. This is good because the VT Cleaning Staff often works with buckets of water (so the risk of dropping the camera is present)
  2. Index Cards
    1. Small, so it’s easier to carry prompt for when you have downtime, such as on break or on the bus
    2. Normal sized paper has a strong scholastic connotation. We do not want this to feel like school because the VT cleaning staff is either in school, consciously chose to go to school or cannot go to school due to other obligations. Reminding the latter two groups of school will likely cause negative feelings
  3. Small envelopes
    1. These fit the index cards well.
    2. It also doesn’t have a connotation of unpleasant things that come in normal sized envelopes, like bills. The VT Cleaning Staff is a subset of a demographic that has to worry about bills (so the negative connotation will be there). Things such as birthday cards or holiday cards come in small envelopes.. Therefore the envelopes are already friendly and inviting to be opened
    3. Labeled with days of the week so minimal effort is needed when deducing which envelope to pick for the day
  4. Letter to past or future
    1. The letter allows us to see how the VT Cleaning Staff reflects
    2. The option to pick the past or future gives open endness
      1. This prevents the VT Cleaning Staff from reflecting on things they’d rather not think about if necessary
        1. i.e. if they do not enjoy their job and do not wish to reflect on past circumstances that led them to their job, there is no pressure to reflect on the past
  5. Instructions
    1. For pretty much any demographic, instructions allow a stress free experience in figuring out how to use the box
  6. Questionnaire
    1. Our current known demographic is “VT Cleaning Staff”. It would be interesting to see how responses vary among age, gender, marital status, etc.
  7. Small colorful box
    1. We only have one color because we do not want to control for the color of the box during our analysis
    2. The color is blue, which is gender neutral
    3. Blue is also a calming color, which will create help a calm frame of mind
    4. The box is small and closes so that it is easy to transport and store
    5. Colorful boxes have pleasant connotations, such as birthday or holiday gift



(Contents of Kit)


  1. Personal Questions
    1. Name?Age?Gender?
    2. Are you currently married?
    3. Do you have children? If yes, how many?
    4. How many children still live at home with you?
  2. Job Related Questions
    1. How long have you worked for Virginia Tech?
    2. Including this one, how many places are you currently employed?
    3. What is your yearly income (optional)?
  3. History
    1. What is the highest level of education you have completed?
      1. Some high school, high school, some college, college?
    2. Where did you work prior to VT Cleaning? (not including current employers; 3 places max)
      1. Reason for leaving?
    3. Have you ever lived outside of Virginia?
    4. Have you ever lived outside of the country?

Photo Prompts

Take pictures of:

  1. Monday: The places you go.
  2. Tuesday: Your friends and/or coworkers
  3. Wednesday: The positive parts of your day
  4. Thursday: The negative parts of your day
  5. Friday: Your family and loved ones
  6. Saturday: What you did for yourself
  7. Sunday: Things that are important to you (people, places, things, etc.)

Many to no photos are acceptable.

Index Card Questions 

The index cards are meant for the end of each day as a reflection tool. Some will correspond with the picture questions for that day,

  1. What is your daily routine on a work day? (Monday)
  2. What profession would you choose if you could pick any job? (Tuesday)
  3. Why did you choose to take the photos you did today? (Wednesday)
  4.  Why did you choose to take the photos you did today? (Thursday)
  5. How are your family or loved ones important to you? (Friday)
  6. What are some of your hobbies and interests? (Saturday)
  7. What have these photos over the past week shown you? (Sunday)



Personal Reflections


Cultural probe kits present a creative and effective way to engage and study a community without necessarily having to enter it. We began our design process by collectively discussing communities we would be interested in understanding better. We decided very quickly in unison on the Virginia Tech custodial staff. Our reasoning for this was because of both the practicality of it as well as the proximity of the community to our lives. These are people we’ve all been exposed to but know little about and we believe it is important for us to be able to understand the ways we may be able to help the people who are constantly helping us. A cultural probe kit is easily applied to this community we are surrounded by and presents an exciting way, both for the participants and the researchers, to contribute to understanding the needs of the community.


In retrospect, I would have liked to have more specifically targeted our cultural target. That is to say, I believe we could have come up with questions and tasks that are especially relevant to Virginia Tech and its employees. I feel that our current probe kit is perhaps too generalized and could be applied to any community. I believe this is a result of the rush to establish a basis for our project and get content without necessarily having time to look back and ensure we don’t lose sight of our original objective. Additionally, I am concerned by the potential for bias to be introduced via the enjoyment that may be created by the probe kit as well as a bias created simply by the volunteers who may be more likely to tend towards a certain personality type.


The place I believe our probe kit particularly excels is our balance of breadth of data collection and ease of use. I believe people will be excited to take photos and most people generally enjoy writing about themselves. This gives us a lot of data very inexpensively and provides an enjoyable experience to participants.



A unique feature of this project was how open-ended it was. Cultural probes can be directed towards any anthropological group, no matter how specific, and can contain any objects and/or instructions. There are essentially infinite combinations. Even once we completed this project I found myself thinking of the different cultures that we could work with and learn from via probe kits.


We started by brainstorming groups and when Marcus suggested the VT Cleaning Crew my interest was piqued. I realized that we coexist with this culture yet don’t know much about it. I enjoyed designing a cultural probe for this group because of how close they are to our everyday lives and perhaps we could work with them to better lives here in Blacksburg.


One weakness of our kit is that there is still a level of intrusivity and “chore like feel” with answering the note cards and questionnaires. We don’t want the probe kit to feel like work; in fact it feeling like work might even negatively cloud the responses. Another weakness is that the probe kit requires individuals to carry around a camera in order to take photographs. Carrying a camera could be intrusive and maybe even get in the way of daily activities. We tried to mitigate this by picking a small, digital, waterproof camera. A strength of our kit is that the daily envelopes have a personal feel; they are the same size as holiday cards or invitations and have handwritten labels. The kit is also presented in a gift-like format, with it being a small cheerfully colored box with a digital camera resting on tissue paper and small envelopes inside. These design choices should bring up pleasant associations which will draw individuals towards using the probe kit.


Last semester, in Human Computer Interaction, we learned about ethnographic studies, which is where the researcher assumes the point of view of the subject of the study. Since we leave the probe kit with the subjects themselves and ask them to record parts of their lives, it seems like the probe kit is assuming the role of an inhuman ethnographer. This allows us to do ethnographics studies quickly and among many individuals in a group. However, probe designers cannot design the most engaging and unbiased probe system possible for a certain group because they themselves are often very unfamiliar with the group.



I really appreciated the idea behind this project. It really made me think about the many communities that I know little to nothing about even though I see these people on a regular basis. This idea is what made us choose the VT Cleaning Staff as our community because they are people we’ve seen hundreds of times but we’ve never interacted with them in any way. We wanted our process to reflect what members of the cleaning staff do everyday and find out how their job affects their everyday lives. Our kit is pretty small which is great because we wanted it to be portable so the kit can be used by a different person each week. The kit also contains everything the user will need to fulfil each task the instructions instruct the user to do. A downside to our kit is that it does not contain any dividers to organize the material in it and since there are a lot of pieces to the kit, things could get mixed up. Another problem is that there is no way to tell which photo was taken on what day so for the process to work we rely on the user including the note card with the task of the day in the photo. Putting the note card in the photo in a way that can be readable may take away from the quality of some photos.



The hardest part to this project was having to decide which community would be our target audience, and combining it with how we could effectively find out more about their culture. Once we decide on our target community we had to develop methods of reaching our target audience, which turned out to be reflective tools that help us look at their life style and how it may affect them as people.  The cultural probing process can be a very useful tool that can highlight possible problems in certain cultures as well as solutions. A negative to our kit is that it might be not overly incentive to do and might be a burden to some which may cause people not to want to put 100% into this. In order to fix this I think having more time to help think of how to connect the kit more specifically to our target audience so that we could receive better results as well as make it more user friendly so it seems less of a burden.


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Quick Critique – Autocorrect

Autocorrect has become a cornerstone of modern society. It has enabled us to produce more quality content quickly given limited mobile-based environment. Before autocorrect, we shortened our sentences with replacements and initialisms in our sentences, sacrificing an intelligently composed argument for a more easily composed one. However, autocorrect does not come without it’s disadvantages, that being it fails to understand context in an intelligent manor. As a solution to this, I pitched to the class that we utilize a universal and standard AI for composing and validating our mobile composed text. This idea has raised some concerns among the class, one of which I’d like to address. It is as follows:

What about non-sensical sentences?

I am presuming that this comment is suggesting that there are occasions in which we may intentionally compose a message or document that is non-sensical in nature. This is something that we all do from time-to-time out of irony. My solution to this is a societal shift. I suggest that we consider composing our communications to be more streamlined and avoid non-sensical sentences altogether. This pays homage to Taylorism, wherein we stream-line a process (in this case, our communication with one-another) by cutting out unnecessary steps. Perhaps we should focus on using the SMS capabilities on our phone more for planning and short communications and redirect non-sensical conversations to a more efficient, less ambiguous, and more expressive medium, that is a telephone call or in-person conversation. We may take this further by utilizing emoji to replace snippets, subjects, and nouns with more concise representations, cutting down on the time needed to read and interpret a communication as well as mitigating the amount of data used in sending said communication.

By shifting society towards more logical SMS communications, not only are we streamlining our conversations, we will also be working to better a dataset of logical and less error prone text messages for use in our Universal Message Composing AI (UMCAI) As time progresses, UMCAI will begin to grow stronger in its message synthesis capabilities, working off of lower quantities of starting words and less context in a conversation to produce messages that characterize us as individuals. Over time, UMCAI will be replace all necessity for manual texting and require only a notion of what must be communicated to the third party, and likewise for the third-party.


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